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Location and Climate

Beirut seen from above

Lebanon is located in the East of the Mediterranean Sea. In the coast of 225 km in extension and 70 km in width are located Beirut, Byblos, Sidon, Tripoli and Tyre. These cities are under the shadow of Mount Lebanon, the core of the country that, according to ancient manuscripts and even the Bible, was covered in Ancient times with forests of cedars, oaks and other trees of different aromatic essences.

In the Eastern side of Mount Lebanon is located the Beqaa Valley (altitude: 900 m), a fertile plain called in Ancient times the “granary of the Roman Empire” where several cities such as Baalbeck, Aanjar and Zahleh are situated. The plain ends in the border with Anti-Lebanon, the second mountain range (desert barrier) that forms the mountain cluster of Mount Hermon (Jabal el-Shaykh, in Arabic), a less inhabited and less irrigated area. Lebanon is bordered by Syria to the north and east and to the occupied Palestinian territories to the south.

The Lebanese climate is moderate Mediterranean. The winter is humid on the coast and snowy on mountains, while the summer is hot on the coast and humid on mountains, and tourism is stimulated in all seasons. The hydrography is another positive natural feature: The Lebanese rivers and springs are formed by the snow which covers the mountains during the winter and then melts down. The Litani River (160 km in length) rises in Beqaa Valley at a height of one thousand meters; al-Kebir River (58 km in length) and Orontes River (46 km in length) are some of the largest rivers in Lebanon.

Most part of the Lebanese soil suffers with erosion, and the vegetation is scarce, especially inside the country, due to cattle. In the Mediterranean area are the largest productions of fruits and grains.

Due to the concerns with the country environment, Lebanon has recently signed international agreements to protect biodiversity and to fight desertification and climate change, among others, in order to stop environmental degradation and to renew forests.

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